In addition to former excerpts of Herbert Stachowiak’s 1973 book “Allgemeine Modelltheorie” (General Model Theory) here are some brief examples from the part on semiological (semological) classification of semantic models (chapter 18.104.22.168).
Semantic vs non-semantic Models
Prior to the subsequent ordering, Stachowiak distinguishes semantic from graphical/technical models. Semantic models are models of perception and thinking expressed by combinations of conventionalized signs. Examples of graphical/ technical models are viewable and graspable models like photographs, diagrams, function graphs; globes, crash test dummies, lab rats etc.
Moreover, following the linguistic separation of expressions of emotions (emotional semantic models) and thoughts (cognitive semantic models) by A. Noreen, Stachowiak deals only with the latter considering the former not to be part of the theory at all.
Kinds of semantic Models
These cognitive semantic models can now be separated into the following categories, here represented by examples:
- allocative e.g. “Hello, you!”
- optative e.g. “Have a nice trip!”, “Wouldn’t it be nice …”
- imperative (order) e.g. “Move over!”
- interrogative (question) e.g. “What’s you name?”
- narrative (statement)
- pre-scientific declarative e.g. “You can get it if you really want”
- poetical e.g. “The nightingale, the organ of delight”, “Ready to drink wine, with a cherry blossom”
- metaphysical as biomorphic (e.g. creation of the earth as egg of a prehistoric bird), technomorphic (e.g. canopy (sky), “pushing up the daisies”) or sociomorphic (e.g. willpower as police of the soul)
- formal (formal science): e.g. expressions in language of first order logic and mathematical structures satisfying them. [see any textbook on mathematical logic]
- empirical-theoretical (empirical science): structure of real world objects satisfying formal axioms [basically, extraction of formulas from (probably very very difficult) word problems]
- operative and prospective: empirical models with objects changing (esp. over time) [see any imperative programming language]
Notice that Stachowiak has described these categories in much greater detail, and this is just a first brief overview. The examples are translated very liberally.
The category of empirical-theoretical models, elementary to all kinds of engineering, is covered in more detail in Stachowiak on semantic Requirements Modelling
More on Stachowiak: Herbert Stachowiak postings